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Cos'è un tipo MIME ?

A MIME type is effectively information describing the kind of document retrieved from the web server. Since a web server can furnish many types of documents, the browser needs a way to know the specific document type in order to display it properly.

Non è sufficiente l'estensione del file ?

Sometimes file extension is not enough. For example, In the web environment, when a PHP script generates a jpeg image, you get an URL with a .php extension. However, the browser knows that the content represents a jpeg image because it gets this information in the http header as a MIME type.